1–2 Timothy and Titus (ESV Edition): To Guard the Deposit (Preaching the Word)

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As Hiebert reminds us "comparatively few among the masses of humanity saw personally the manifestation of life an immortality in Christ; so it is through the preaching of the Gospel, in which the manifestation is enshrined, that this revelation is now made known to men.

NASB: Lockman. Greek : eis o etethen 1SAPI eg o kerux kai apostolos kai didaskalos. Wuest : with reference to which good news I was appointed a herald and an ambassador and a teacher. Young's Literal : to which I was placed a preacher and an apostle, and a teacher of nations,. For which - The flow of Paul's argument in this section is that Spirit wrought salvation leads to Spirit energized service.

How goes it with you since you were regenerated? Having been created in Christ Jesus are you seeking the works He has prepared for you beforehand that you should walk in them? Eph note Under grace not law let me remind you to run your race with endurance because Only one life Twill soon be past Only what's done For in Christ will last!

Preacher kerux is the Greek term describing the Imperial Herald Crier, Messenger, Proclaimer who made a public proclamations for kings, magistrates, princes, military commanders. A kerux was the town crier or herald. The kerux , who often served as a close confidant of the king, would travel throughout the realm announcing to the people whatever the king wished to make known. It is this note of authoritative declaration that is so appropriately transferred to the proclamation of the gospel. And for this I was appointed a preacher and an apostle I am telling the truth, I am not lying as a teacher of the Gentiles in faith and truth.

This proclamation was given with a sense of formality, gravity and authority which must be heeded. Kerusso the verb form of kerux is used by Paul in 2Ti to command his young "recruit" Timothy to publicly declare the gospel In fact the only way to keep God's commandments is by manifesting a continually attitude of dependency on His enabling Spirit! In Classic Greek kerux was used of a public servant of supreme power both in peace and in war, who summoned the town gathering which is the Greek word ekklesia translated in the NT as "church". Paul was the public crier of the gospel message resulting in the ekklesia being called out of the world and unto God into the body of Christ, the church.

That the gospel message was also found in the OT, is implied by Peter's description of Noah as "a preacher kerux of righteousness " 2Pe note. Paul and every Christian in a sense is the herald of Christ. We are not called to bring men our opinions but the message of the gospel of Jesus Christ.

Kerux is the Greek word for herald, and the herald was the man who brought a message direct from the king. This word tells us of certain characteristics of the preaching of Jesus and these are characteristics which should be in all preaching. Preaching speaks from a source beyond the preacher. We may not all be appointed preachers like Paul but we do have the same gospel message and we have all been in a sense appointed as "ambassadors for Christ" with the good news of "the word of reconciliation. The question we each need to ask is will we be found a "trustworthy steward" when our Lord and Master returns?

It was used in several different ways, each of which exemplified Paul's ministry. It was used of a herald who brought an announcement from the king. Paul as well as us was sent forth to herald the good news of salvation from the King of kings. It was used of an emissary when two armies were opposed to each other. The man of God is sent as a go-between to offer conditions of peace to men in opposition to God. It was also used of an auctioneer or merchant shouting out his wares and inviting people to come and buy. So we are to make known to those around us the gift of eternal life which God is inviting all men to come receive freely.

While it is absolutely essential that our walk backs our talk, it is equally essential that our talk explains our walk. Otherwise, how will people come to know the real reason for the difference in our lifestyle? It was the message proclaimed by the kerux , who was the official spokesman or herald of a king. Because the kerux was the appointed, official representative of the king or government, his specific job was to announce with a clear and unquestionable voice the desires, dictates, orders, recent events, news, policy changes, or message that the king or government wished to express to the people.

The position of this kerux "spokesman" or "herald" was viewed to be the highest, most noble, privileged position in the kingdom because his position gave him routine access to the king that was afforded only to rare individuals. To be the king's kerux was an honor and supreme privilege that necessitated the highest level of professionalism and excellent performance. When the king wanted to give a message to his people, he summoned the kerux.

The kerux came to the king's throne room with writing instrument and paper in hand; then he carefully and accurately penned the communication that the king desired to express to his people. After the king was finished dictating his message, the kerux was allowed to freely speak to the king and to ask questions of clarification to make certain he understood every point of the king's message. Because this man was speaking on behalf of the king, there was no room for mistakes in his delivery of the message.

When he finally stood before the people to announce the message given to him, it had to be accurate, precise, and faithful to what the king wanted to express to his people When the kerux had finished delivering the king's message to the people, he turned, left the platform from which he spoke, and then remained silent until the king summoned him back to the throne room to give him another message for the people. As the king's spokesman, he had no right to speak his own mind, give his own personal commentary about what the king meant, or draw any attention to himself.

Such actions would be considered gross violations of his position and a guarantee that he would no longer serve as the king's spokesman. Keeping all this in mind, let's consider again what Jesus meant when He commanded that all believers go into all the world "to preach" the Gospel. Since kerusso "to preach" is the message of the kerux "the king's spokesman" , it is clear that by using the word "preach," God is communicating several very powerful messages to you and to me.

First , as a believer, you must learn to see yourself as the representative of Jesus Christ. Although you may never stand before a public pulpit to preach, it is a fact that your life is your most important pulpit. What you say and do in your life reflects on the Lord Jesus Christ. You are writing a Gospel, a chapter each day, By the deeds that you do, by the words that you say; Men read what you write, whether faithless or true.

Say—what is the Gospel according to you?

Second , as a believer, it is absolutely essential that you spend time in the Presence of the Lord so you can hear His Word and capture His heart. You should never think of the time you must spend in God's Presence praying or reading the Word as laborious or dreadful. It is a high honor that God has given you. He beckons you to come into His throne room so He can speak to you, share with you His heart, and then empower you with His Spirit to take the message to people who are desperately waiting for it.

Never forget that you possess a position of great privilege. Third , as a believer, it is imperative that you learn how to dress appropriately and how to speak kindly, courteously, and in a way that brings honor to Jesus. If your appearance communicates a low standard because you dress like a slob, never comb your hair, always look unprofessional, or allow yourself to remain overweight yes, I know this last one affects many people, but what I am saying is true —this is exactly the image you are imparting about Jesus Christ.

Would the president of a nation allow His spokesman to be aired on television in a sweatshirt or tennis shoes? Would a national public representative dare to go on national television to speak on behalf of the government looking like a slob? Of course not! It would be disrespectful to the office or the person the spokesman represented.

Likewise, we must think about what we look like, what we sound like, and how we are perceived. We are not representing ourselves; we are representing Jesus Christ. Fourth , as a believer, you must realize that your private life is just as important as your public life. If you publicly declare the Gospel, but later it is discovered that your private life is a horrible mess and a complete contradiction of what you've been preaching, this, too, will reflect poorly on the Gospel. The lost world loathes hypocrites but enjoys it immensely when a preacher or believer is found to be a contradiction of the message he or she preaches.

So never forget that as the Lord's spokesman, you are required to do everything possible to maintain a life that is spotless, immaculate, pristine, gleaming, and squeaky clean—free of accusation. Fifth , as a believer and a representative of Jesus Christ, you must make a decision to refrain from making personal comments that are not your business to make.

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Speak what Jesus tells you to speak—but if someone tries to draw you into a debate or a conversation regarding a matter you know nothing about, just remain silent. You are not required to speak or to act like an authority regarding issues about which you are not an authority! You see, preaching the Gospel is what you do every day of your life by the way you live and conduct yourself.

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It is true that public pulpit ministry is a very special gift and honor that some are called to do. But the truth is, you preach every day that you get up and faithfully go to work! You preach when you choose to dress modestly or when you speak kindly to your fellow employees, believers, or friends.

All these things reflect on the message of the Gospel. So as you obey Jesus' words to take the Gospel to every ethnic group, culture, custom, civilization, and sphere where you personally have influence, always be mindful of the fact that you are His kerux in those places. You are His personal representative, and everything you do and say preaches about Jesus Christ!

The apostolos did not speak for himself, but for him who sent him. He did not come in his own authority, but in the authority of him who sent him. The Christian is the ambassador of Christ, come to speak for him and to represent him to men. Steven Cole - The office of apostle as one who had unique authority from Christ no longer exists, because the church was built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets Eph.

We have the apostolic foundation in the New Testament. But for the sake of avoiding confusion, such people should not be called apostles, but missionaries or church planters A Cause Worth Dying For. Here "teacher" has reference to the method of imparting the message. The preacher views his office in relation to his message, the apostle in relation to his credentials, and the teacher in relation to those to whom he ministers.

In some of Paul's last recorded words he uses didaskalos in a warning - "For the time will come when they will not endure sound doctrine; but [wanting] to have their ears tickled, they will accumulate for themselves teachers in accordance to their own desires and will turn away their ears from the truth, and will turn aside to myths. For I have knowledge of him in whom I have faith, and I am certain that he is able to keep that which I have given into his care till that day.

However, I'm not ashamed. I know whom I trust. I'm convinced that he is able to protect what he had entrusted to me until that day. But I am not ashamed. I know Jesus, the One I have believed in. And I am sure that he is able to protect what he has trusted me with until that Day. KJV : For the which cause I also suffer these things: nevertheless I am not ashamed: for I know whom I have believed, and am persuaded that he is able to keep that which I have committed unto him against that day.

MLB : Therefore I suffer in this way; but I am not ashamed, for I know whom I have believed and am convinced that He is able to guard safely my deposit, entrusted to Him against that Day. NLT : And that is why I am suffering here in prison. But I am not ashamed of it, for I know the one in whom I trust, and I am sure that he is able to guard what I have entrusted to him until the day of his return. Phillips : and it is for this Gospel that I am now suffering these things. Yet I am not in the least ashamed. For I know the one in whom I have placed my confidence, and I am perfectly certain that the work he has committed to me is safe in his hands until that day.

Weymouth : That indeed is the reason why I suffer as I do. But I am not ashamed, for I know in whom my trust reposes, and I am confident that He has it in His power to keep what I have entrusted to Him safe until that day. Wuest : on which account I am also suffering these things. But I am not ashamed, for I know with an absolute knowledge the One in whom I have permanently placed my trust, and have come to a settled persuasion that He is of power to guard that which has been committed as a trust to me [his Christian service] with reference to that day.

Young's Literal : for which cause also these things I suffer, but I am not ashamed, for I have known in whom I have believed, and have been persuaded that he is able that which I have committed to him to guard -- to that day. For this reason - Always pause and ponder this important phrase, stopping long enough to ask at least the simple question " What reason? What is Paul preaching and teaching about? Why is he suffering?

What might potentially happen to me when I begin to take a stand for the Gospel? Forewarned is forearmed! Suffer pascho means to be affected by something in this case evil from without. It means to undergo something; to experience a sensation, to experience an impression from an outside source, to undergo an experience usually difficult and normally with the implication of physical or psychological suffering.

Pascho is in the present tense indicating that Paul's experience of suffering was a continual action going on in the present 2Ti note. Dwight Edwards makes an excellent practical point "The way we cross the dark valleys of undeserved suffering will determine whether we end up as holy or bitter individuals. Undeserved suffering will drive us into one of these two camps; either it will purify our faith so that we become increasingly holy or it will erode our confidence in God so that w e become increasingly bitter. Heb see notes Hebrews ; ; ; ; We see in this passage how Paul responded to his undeserved suffering This suffering had not diminished his confidence in God, in fact it was strong as ever".

These things tauta - Paul does not enumerate here but in the context of this letter some of these things would include imprisonment and all that is entailed as well as the painful fact that "all in Asia turned away from" him 2Ti [note] , cf 2Cor , 24, 25 f. He had experienced the suffering of one was abandoned and undoubtedly was lonely cf his plea for Timothy to "make every effort to come" 2Ti note , 2Ti note. Paul had a proper perspective on suffering writing "I rejoice in my sufferings for your the Colossian saints sake.

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But - Introduces a striking contrast - suffering but unashamed. This is not humanly possible but reflects Paul's having learned the principle of Christ's sufficiency for his human weaknesses see 2Co note , 2Co note. Not ouk is as absolute negative. In no way was Paul ashamed. It describes one's consciousness of guilt or of exposure or the fear of embarrassment that one's expectations may prove false.

Epaischunomai - 11 times in the NT - Mk. Epaischunomai is associated with being afraid, feeling shame which prevents one from doing something, a reluctance to say or do something because of fear of humiliation, experiencing a lack of courage to stand up for something or feeling shame because of what has been done. Marvin Vincent - The feeling expressed by epaischunomai has reference to incurring dishonor or shame in the eyes of men. Hence it does not spring out of a reverence for right in itself, but from fear of the knowledge and opinion of men.

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Therefore, I have set My face like flint, and I know that I shall not be ashamed. Paul likewise is convinced that God is strong to enable him to be faithful to his apostolic calling, in spite of the sufferings which attend it, until the day when he shall be summoned to render his final account. Paul's abiding knowledge of the Person of Jesus removed all sense of shame. He who is conscious of pleasing God has no reason for feelings of shame through experiencing any form of suffering in consequence. Faithfulness to God frees the believer from bondage to human opinion, regard, and reward.

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This knowledge is not personal knowledge gained by experience, but knowledge of a Person Who he had found absolutely dependable in any circumstance. His personal knowledge of Jesus as the One in Whom he had learned to trust, imparted the absolute assurance of His unfailing faithfulness. Ultimately this knowledge is dispensed by the Spirit Who opens the eyes of our heart to know Jesus and be assured that He is the Messiah. THE text is wholly taken up with three things; namely, with knowing, with believing, and with the person who is known and believed; and upon both the knowing and the believing Paul is very decided.

It is all assurance, and not a shadow of doubt. Let us imitate the apostle, or ask for grace to be able to imitate him, that we may shake off the dubious phraseology which is so common among Christians nowadays, and may be able to speak with apostolic confidence upon, a matter upon which we ought to be confident if anywhere at all, namely, our own salvation To accept as true, genuine, or real.

To have a firm conviction as to the goodness, efficacy, or ability of something or someone. To consider to be true. To accept the word or evidence of. Using the perfect tense Paul is saying "I first trusted Jesus on the Damascus Road and I still trust Him with my eternal present and eternal future.

Paul had permanently put his trust and confidence " convinced " below is also perfect tense in Christ Jesus and still trusted Him even as the shadow of death loomed over him. This speaks of Paul's trust as permanent and abiding. Wuest paraphrases the idea of the perfect tense - I have believed with the present result that my faith is a firmly settled one. It is there to stay. Hiebert - "Paul testifies personally to that which he has asked of Timothy v8 and explains that the secret of his attitude is a Person. It is his abiding knowledge of this Person that removes all sense of shame.

The world may regard his faith in a crucified Jesus a thing of folly and a just cause for shame, but his personal relations with this Person prevent any such feeling.

This Person will never put him to shame. He has permanently put his trust and confidence in Him perfect tense , has been trusting Him all along, and is trusting Him now in the face of impending death. It is his settled, fixed assurance "that he is able to guard that which I have committed to Him. He is able effectively "to guard my deposit..

As Spurgeon puts it, it is as if Paul says, "I know the Person into whose hand I have committed my present condition, and my eternal destiny.

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I know Who he is, and I therefore, without any hesitation, leave myself in His hands. It is the beginning of spiritual life to believe Jesus Christ. Paul knew nobody else so well as he knew his Lord. If you are trying to keep your own soul, you are in serious trouble and will be rudely surprised one day. You cannot keep yourself safe. Your only hope is to entrust all that you are and have to Jesus. Lay it all at his feet and you will be safe. MacArthur adds that Paul's "confidence did not come from a creed or a theological system or a denomination or an ordination.

It came solely from a close, unbroken relationship with God, to whom he unreservedly gave his life, going about his divine mission with no concern for his own welfare, safety, or life. Gill adds that "A spiritual knowledge of Christ is necessary to faith in Him: an unknown Christ cannot be the object of faith Knowledge and faith go together: they that truly know Christ, believe in Him, and the more they know Him, the more strongly do they believe in Him This knowledge which they have of him I am convinced peitho means literally to persuade or induce by words to believe Acts , Mt , Ro Peitho is a strong verb which which conveys the ideas of confidence, reliance, and hope.

Mt , 43; ; Lk. The use of the perfect tense indicates that Paul became convinced when he was saved by Christ and he remained convinced of His saving and keeping power. Paul had a settled, fixed assurance that Christ was " able ". Wuest adds that "Paul had come to a settled persuasion regarding the matter and was fixed in an immovable position. You could not budge him. Paul trusted his absolute security in God. He had been through years of relentless temptations, trials and testing, opportunities and hardships.

He had seen the power of God at work again and again, both in him and around him. Are you convinced Jesus is able to guard you? For I am convinced that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor things present, nor things to come, nor powers Ro note. Able describes that which has sufficient or necessary power, means, skill, or resources to accomplish an objective. Thus dunatos describes one who is powerful enough, who has the ability to perform the function in this case of guarding Paul's "deposit".

Paul like Abraham was "fully assured plerophoreo that what God had promised, He was able dunatos also to perform. Paul writes to the Corinthians that God is " able dunatos to make all grace abound to you, that always having all sufficiency in everything, you may have an abundance for every good deed.

Paul understood the truth that the Lord God was "laying in Zion a stone, a tested stone, a costly cornerstone for the foundation, firmly placed. He who believes in it will not be disturbed. The soldier on watch was accountable with his own life to protect that which was entrusted to his care. Mt ; Mk. Phulasso refers specifically to deliberate and conscious watching, being on the alert, carrying out "sentinel" functions, to guard one assigned to protect or oversee another or to protect by taking careful measures. I guarded phulasso them and not one of them perished but the son of perdition Paul reminded the afflicted saints at Thessalonica that "the Lord is faithful and He will strengthen and protect phulasso you from the evil one.

Jude uses phulasso to describe "Him Who is able to keep us from stumbling.

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Martin Luther - I have had many things in my hands and have lost them all. But whatever I have been able to place in God's hands I still possess. Peter has a parallel thought writing "Therefore, those also who suffer according to the will of God shall entrust their souls to a faithful Creator in doing what is right. Note that there are 2 ways this phrase can be translated : This could refer to what Paul entrusted to God or alternatively could refer to what God had entrusted to Paul's care eg, the gospel.

The following versions by contrast translate the phrase with the emphasis on what God entrusted to Paul Hiebert has an excellent summary writing that "the former view Thus viewed, God is pictured as the Trustee with Whom he has deposited for safekeeping his temporal and eternal welfare. This truth provides wondrous comfort to the tried and tested servant of the Lord.

The majority of Greek expositors The word paratheke occurs only in 1Ti , here and in 2Ti [note] following. In the other two passages the word clearly expresses what is committed by God to a person and for which he is answerable to God. This fact makes it probable that Paul, in the absence of any indication otherwise, uses it in the same sense here Thus viewed the meaning is that the precious deposit of the Gospel, which God has entrusted to Paul, God will not in these difficult times allow to be lost.

In view of his impending martyrdom and the devastating persecutions of the Church which appear inevitable 2Ti [note] Paul is confident that the all powerful Guardian and Protector, Whom he has learned to trust implicitly, will Himself safeguard the message which He has given. We let "the deposit" mean the Gospel which has been entrusted to him, yet this assurance ultimately includes himself, his all, since the preaching of that Gospel was his very life.

This practice was common in days when there were no banks. The picture Paul is painting is drawn from this practice of one person trusting another with some precious deposit, to be kept for a time and then restored intact. Paratheke is used only three times in Scripture and each time in combination with the Greek word phulasso translated guard or keep : 1Ti 2Ti , 2Ti In his first epistle Paul used the same combination of phulasso and paratheke in his exhortation to Timothy Grace be with you. The third use of paratheke is found in this same chapter " Guard aorist imperative , through the Holy Spirit who dwells in us, the treasure which has been entrusted to you.

Paratheke refers to something entrusted to another for faithful keeping or deposited for protection. It is essentially something which must be handed back or handed on absolutely unchanged.

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That is to say the stress is on orthodoxy It is the word for money deposited with a banker or with a friend. When such money was in time demanded back, it was a sacred duty to hand it back entire. Sometimes children were called a paratheke , a sacred trust. If the gods gave a man a child, it was his duty to present that child trained and equipped to the gods. That which is committed to thee, not that which is invented by thee; that which thou hast received, not that which thou hast devised; a thing not of wit, but of learning; not of private assumption, but of public tradition; a thing brought to thee, not brought forth of thee; wherein thou must not be an author, but a keeper; not a leader, but a follower.

Keep the deposit. Preserve the talent of the faith safe and undiminished; let that which is committed to thee remain with thee, and that deliver. Thou hast received gold, render gold. If in our day the Church were to become enfeebled; if the Christian ethic were to be more and more submerged in the world; if the Christian faith were to be twisted and distorted; it would not only be we who were the losers, those of generations still to come would be robbed of something infinitely precious. We are not only the possessors but also the trustees of the faith. That which we have received, we must also hand on.

Paratheke was a secular legal term describing something placed on trust in another's keeping. This object was to be kept free, unused and undamaged until restoration. The trustworthiness of the trustee was thus most important. Kittel, G. Theological Dictionary of the New Testament. Vincent notes that "sums deposited with a Bishop for the use of the church were called trust-funds paratheke of the church. William Barclay has an illustration of paratheke that helps understand how this specific word must have had such a profound impact on Timothy A man might deposit something with a friend to be kept for his children or his loved ones; he might deposit his valuables in a temple for safe keeping, for the temples were the banks of the ancient world.

In the ancient world there was no more sacred duty than the safe-guarding of such a deposit and the returning of it when in due time it was claimed. There was a famous Greek story which told just how sacred such a trust was Herodotus ; Juvenal: Satires, — The Spartans were famous for their strict honour and honesty. A certain man of Miletus came to a certain Glaucus of Sparta. He said that he had heard such great reports of the honesty of the Spartans that he had turned half his possessions into money and wished to deposit that money with Glaucus, until he or his heirs should claim it again.

Certain symbols were given and received which would identify the rightful claimant when he should make his claim. The years passed on; the man of Miletus died; his sons came to Sparta to see Glaucus, produced the identifying tallies and asked for the return of the deposited money. But Glaucus claimed that he had no memory of ever receiving it. The sons from Miletus went sorrowfully away; but Glaucus went to the famous oracle at Delphi to see whether he should admit the trust or, as Greek law entitled him to do, should swear that he knew nothing about it.

The oracle answered:. Glaucus understood; the oracle was telling him that if he wished for momentary profit, he should deny the trust, but such a denial would inevitably bring eternal loss. He besought the oracle to pardon his question; but the answer was that to have tempted the god was as bad as to have done the deed. He sent for the sons of the man of Miletus and restored the money. It is a good thing therefore, when a pledge has been left with one, not even in thought to doubt about restoring it.

Into Thy hand I commit paratithemi my spirit.