Universe and Solar System Series: Theories of the Universe

The Universe
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Solar wind from the Sun created the heliosphere and swept away the remaining gas and dust from the protoplanetary disc into interstellar space, ending the planetary formation process. The idea that the Solar System originated from a nebula was first proposed in by Swedish scientist and theologian Emanual Swedenborg.

In this treatise, he argued that gaseous clouds nebulae slowly rotate, gradually collapsing and flattening due to gravity and forming stars and planets. A similar but smaller and more detailed model was proposed by Pierre-Simon Laplace in his treatise Exposition du system du monde Exposition of the system of the world , which he released in As the cloud spun more rapidly, it threw off material that eventually condensed to form the planets. The Laplacian nebular model was widely accepted during the 19th century, but it had some rather pronounced difficulties.

The main issue was angular momentum distribution between the Sun and planets, which the nebular model could not explain. In addition, Scottish scientist James Clerk Maxwell — asserted that different rotational velocities between the inner and outer parts of a ring could not allow for condensation of material. By the early 20th century, the Laplacian model had fallen out of favor, prompting scientists to seek out new theories. However, it was not until the s that the modern and most widely accepted variant of the nebular hypothesis — the solar nebular disk model SNDM — emerged.

Credit for this goes to Soviet astronomer Victor Safronov and his book Evolution of the protoplanetary cloud and formation of the Earth and the planets In this book, almost all major problems of the planetary formation process were formulated and many were solved. For example, the SNDM model has been successful in explaining the appearance of accretion discs around young stellar objects.

Various simulations have also demonstrated that the accretion of material in these discs leads to the formation of a few Earth-sized bodies. Thus the origin of terrestrial planets is now considered to be an almost solved problem. While originally applied only to the Solar System, the SNDM was subsequently thought by theorists to be at work throughout the Universe, and has been used to explain the formation of many of the exoplanets that have been discovered throughout our galaxy.

Although the nebular theory is widely accepted, there are still problems with it that astronomers have not been able to resolve. For example, there is the problem of tilted axes.

The Birth of the Sun

According to the nebular theory, all planets around a star should be tilted the same way relative to the ecliptic. But as we have learned, the inner planets and outer planets have radically different axial tilts.

So, how did everything start?

Whereas the inner planets range from almost 0 degree tilt, others like Earth and Mars are tilted significantly Also, the study of extrasolar planets have allowed scientists to notice irregularities that cast doubt on the nebular hypothesis. Astronomers have adjusted the nebular hypothesis to account for some of these problems, but have yet to address all outlying questions.

How Was the Solar System Formed? – The Nebular Hypothesis

Alas, it seems that it questions that have to do with origins that are the toughest to answer. The show followed the imagined crew of a spaceship exploring our galaxy. Another inspiration: Science fiction author Arthur C. This tale is both a memorable movie and novel. For the next generation, who knows who will be inspired by the the movie Interstellar , a fictional team of astronauts search for a habitable planet around a black hole in a distant galaxy. The television series Cosmos , featuring Voyager mission scientist Carl Sagan, took viewers on a factual tour of the known Universe and sparked the imaginations of many present day scientists and engineers.

The series was reimagined in with astronomer Neil deGrasse Tyson as the host. Introduction Our Sun is one of at least billion stars in the Milky Way, a spiral galaxy about , light-years across.

Origins - Formation of the Universe, Solar System, Earth and Life

The Latest. First Image of a Black Hole.

Beyond Our Solar System News

Within the universe's first second, it was cool enough for the remaining matter to coalesce into protons and neutrons, the familiar particles that make up atoms' nuclei. Students should have a general understanding of Big Bang Theory, formation of the universe, and Oscillating Model Theory. Proponents of the Big Bang maintain that, between 13 billion and 15 billion years ago, all the matter and energy in the known cosmos was crammed into a tiny, compact point. By the time the universe was a billionth of a second old, the universe had cooled down enough for the four fundamental forces to separate from one another. The End of the Universe Will the universe continue expanding? Audible Download Audio Books.

Thousands of Galaxies. This new visualization of a black hole illustrates how its gravity distorts our view, warping its surroundings as if seen in a carnival mirror. Scientists are working with powerful space telescopes to track down specific types of black holes that may hold clues to the formation of the universe.

The Universe

The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and .. The prevailing model for the evolution of the Universe is the Big Bang theory. .. The frames show the evolution of structures in a 43 million parsecs (or million light-years) box from redshift of 30 to the present epoch ( upper. For the solar capture theory, see this article's section on Solar System formation. For the lunar capture theory, see this article's section on lunar formation. Pierre- Simon Laplace, one of the originators of the nebular hypothesis. The history of scientific thought about the Formation and evolution of the Solar System begins Universe was filled with vortices of swirling.

The discovery of a dizzying variety of planets and planetary systems is prompting a wholesale re-evaluation of what it takes for a planet to be habitable. To hunt for exoplanets, the flowerlike shade would need to stay aligned with a space telescope over vast distances. Recent work demonstrates how that's possible.


In this large celestial mosaic taken by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, there's a lot to see, including multiple clusters of stars born from the same dense clumps of gas and dust. Our solar system is a stormy place.

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Join us on a tour of storms. Astronomers have crossed an important threshold in revealing a discrepancy between key techniques for measuring the universe's expansion rate.

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New theories may be needed to explain the forces that have shaped the cosmos. Scientists have gathered a lot of evidence and information about the Universe.

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They have used their observations to develop a theory called the Big Bang. The theory states that about This began to enlarge rapidly in a hot explosion, and it is still expanding today. Evidence for the Big Bang includes:. These two features are found in explosions - the fastest moving objects end up furthest away from the explosion.

Scientists have also detected cosmic microwave background radiation or CMBR. This is received from all parts of the Universe and is thought to be the heat left over from the original explosion. You may have noticed that when an ambulance or police car goes past, its siren is high-pitched as it comes towards you, and then becomes low-pitched as it goes away.